Semantically Distinct Key Phrase Extraction

1 minute read

Working with Hilbert Space is fascinating. It is a hash function with prefix matching properties and two hashes can be compared just like a ZIP Code or a PIN Code. This implies that a vector in positive space can be hashed. Combining this with a typical vector transformation in NLP (say word2vec) can generate one dimensional embeddings.

To give an example, consider the words in months (april, july, january) and mathematics (mathematics, deep learning, machine learning). If we transform those words using a word vector embedding and do a hilbert hash, it would look like the following figure

Hilbert Hash for various words from word2vec )

What it implies are

  • If the topics are different, the hash prefix would differ
  • We can reduce all the words in an article to set of hashes and find most common prefixes they belong
  • The look up table can be saved as a dictionary for easy re-use. The original word vectors are no longer needed
  • A trie can do fast look up under each subtree and can summarize/rank keywords

Using this approach, the first thing we could do is to generate distinct key phrases from a given article text. The problem is caleed Key phrase extraction. The uniqueness of this approach is that generated key phrases will be semantically distnict.

Hashing Process )

Output from the package

Distinct Keywords Sample Output )

Generalization and benchmarks

The approach can be generalized to any vector embedding technique and can do semantic sentence comparison or document comparison in an unsupervised setting. The current implementation used Trie and SortedDict for making it one of the fastest implementation. The approach does not require any training and shown a 31% recall score while doing benchmark with KPTimes Test Data Set (20000 articles) with manual keywords Same preprocessing and comparison was done with KeyBert with top_n as 16 and compared.

KP Times Test Data Recall Score )

Supported languages

  1. English (default) using custom word2vec trained on simplewiki.
  2. German (on test. Need support from native speakers).
  3. French (on test. Need support from native speakers).
  4. Italian (on test. Need support from native speakers).
  5. Portuguese (on test. Need support from native speakers).
  6. Spanish (on test. Need support from native speakers).





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Was ist Bitcoin? Bitcoin ist eine dezentrale digitale Wahrung bar Zentralbank oder einzelnen Administrator, die bar Zwischenhandler von Nutzer zu Benutzer vom Peer-to-Peer-Bitcoin-Netzwerk gesendet werden kann. Transaktionen sein von Netzwerkknoten uber Kryptografie verifiziert ferner in einem offentlich verteilten Hauptbuch namens Blockchain aufgezeichnet. Bitcoin wurde von einer unbekannten Person oder aber Personengruppe unter seinem Namen Satoshi Nakamoto erfunden und 2009 als Open-Source-Software veroffentlicht. Bitcoins werden als Belohnung fur den Prozess geschaffen, der als Mining bekannt ist . Selbige konnen gegen sonstige Wahrungen, Produkte und Dienstleistungen eingetauscht sein. Seit Februar 2015 akzeptierten uber 100. 000 Handler des weiteren Anbieter Bitcoin denn Zahlungsmittel. Was gesammelt den jungsten Ausbau des Bitcoin-Preises verursacht? Der jungste Bitcoin-Preisanstieg wurde durch eine Kombination von Kriterien verursacht. Erstens hat die COVID-19-Pandemie abgeschlossen einer erhohten wirtschaftlichen Unsicherheit gefuhrt, welches das Interesse der Anleger an Bitcoin als potenziellem sicheren Hafen geweckt zusammen. Zweitens investieren gro? e institutionelle Investoren zunehmend in Bitcoin, was dazu beigetragen hat, die Tarife in die Hohe zu treiben. Schlie? lich wird auch angenommen, dass dasjenige bevorstehende Halving-Ereignis zum Preisanstieg beitragt, da die Anleger davon ausgehen, dass dies geringere Angebot fuer neuen Bitcoins abgeschlossen hoheren Preisen fuhren wird. Denn funktioniert Bitcoin? Sofern es um Bitcoin geht, gibt es viele Dinge, die mit die Funktionsweise einflie? en. Zunachst einmal ist Bitcoin die dezentrale Wahrung, was bedeutet, dass jene nicht von ihrer Zentralbank oder Herrschaft reguliert wird. Dies bedeutet auch, dass es keine einzelne Einheit gibt, welche die Lieferung vonseiten Bitcoin kontrollieren moglicherweise. Stattdessen wird dasjenige Angebot an Bitcoin vom Netzwerk selbst bestimmt. Wir kennen diese eine, begrenzte Anzahl von Bitcoins, die jemals geschurft werden konnen, und das Schurfen neuer Bitcoins erfordert mit der Arbeitszeit immer mehr Rechenleistung. Also, wie schurft man Bitcoins? Nun, jedes Mal, wenn der Blockchain (die das offentliche Hauptbuch aller Bitcoin-Transaktionen ist) ein neuer Schreibblock hinzugefugt wird, sein Miner mit einer bestimmten Anzahl von Bitcoins belohnt. Mit der absicht, der Blockchain einen neuen Block hinzuzufugen, mussen Miner ein komplexes mathematisches Problem losen.

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Alle Risiken einer Investment in Bitcoin Bitcoin ist ein digitaler Vermogenswert und ein von Satoshi Nakamoto erfundenes Zahlungssystem. Transaktionen werden von Netzwerkknoten durch Kryptografie verifiziert und in einem offentlichen verteilten Hauptbuch namens Blockchain aufgezeichnet. Bitcoin ist insofern einzigartig, als das eine endliche Anzahl von ihnen gibt: 21 Millionen. Bitcoins werden als Wiedergutmachung fur einen Durchlauf geschaffen, der als Mining bekannt ist echt. Sie konnen gegen andere Wahrungen, Produkte und Dienstleistungen eingetauscht werden. Seither Februar 2015 akzeptierten uber 100. 000 Handler und Versorger Bitcoin als Zahlungsmittel. Die Investition mit Bitcoin ist riskant, da es einander um eine heisse Technologie handelt, welche von keiner Herrschaft oder Finanzinstitution unterstutzt wird. Der Kartenwert von Bitcoin mag stark schwanken, des weiteren Anleger konnten das ganzes Geld verlieren, wenn der betrag absturzt. Es besteht ebenso das Risiko, falls Hacker Bitcoins unfein Online-Geldborsen oder -Borsen stehlen konnten.

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